1.3. Tungsten Connector

The Tungsten Connector (or Tungsten Proxy) is a service that sits between your application server and your MySQL database. The connector routes connections from your application servers to the datasources within the cluster, automatically distributing and redirecting queries to each datasource according to load balancing and availability requirements.

The primary goal of Tungsten Connector is to effectively route and redirect queries between the Primary and Replica datasources within the cluster. Client applications talk to the connector, while the connector determines where the packets should really go, depending on the scaling and availability. Using a connector in this way effectively hides the complexities of the cluster size and configuration, allowing your cluster to grow and shrink without interrupting your client application connectivity. Client applications remain connected even though the number, configuration and orientation of the Replicas within the cluster may change.

During failover or system maintenance Tungsten Connector takes information from Tungsten Manager to determine which hosts are up and available, and redirects queries only to those servers that are online within the cluster.

For load balancing, Tungsten Connector supports a number of different solutions for redirecting queries to the different datasources within the network. Solutions are either based on explicit routing, or an implied or automatic read/write splitting mode where data is automatically distributed between Primary hosts (writes) and Replica hosts (reads).

Basic read/write splitting uses packet inspection to determine whether a query is a read operation (SELECT) or a write (INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE). The actual selection mechanism can be fine tuned using the different modes according to your application requirements.

The supported modes are:

  • Port Based Routing

    Port based routing employs a second port on the connector host. All connections to this port are sent to an available Replica.

  • Direct Reads

    Direct reads uses the read/write splitting model, but directs read queries to dedicated read-only connections on the Replica. No attempt is made to determine which host may have the most up to date version of the data. Connections are pooled between the connector and datasources, and this results in very fast execution.

  • SmartScale

    With SmartScale, data is automatically distributed among the datasources using read/write splitting. Where possible, the connector selects read queries by determining how up to date the Replica is, and using a specific session model to determine which host is up to date according to the session and replication status information. Session identification can be through predefined session types or user-defined session strings.

  • Host Based Routing

    Explicit host based routing uses different IP addresses on datasources to identify whether the operation should be directed to a Primary or a Replica. Each connector is configured with two IP addresses, connecting to one IP address triggers the connection to be routed to the current Primary, while connecting to the second IP routes queries to a Replica.

  • SQL Based Routing

    SQL based routing employs packet inspection to identify key strings within the query to determine where the packets should be routed.

These core read/write splitting modes can also be explicitly overridden at a user or host level to allow your application maximum flexibility.